The manifestations of Newcastle disease are dependent on the form and virulence of the infectious agent. The issue is further complicated because each strain may cause a speciﬁc disease proﬁle even when infecting the same type of bird, e.g., the domestic chicken. For purposes of simpliﬁcation, viruses are categorized by the signs and symptoms they cause in chicken.
- Doyle viruses infect chickens of all ages, causing hemorrhagic lesions in the gastrointestinal system, and are described as Viscerotropic Velogenic Newcastle Disease (VVND).
- Beach viruses cause acute and often deadly disease in chickens of all ages. Distinguishing features of the disease caused by these viruses include respiratory and nervous system disorders, and the viruses are described as Neurogenic Velogenic Newcastle Disease (NVND).
- Beaudette viruses cause less acute disease and are described as Mesogenic. Therefore, these viruses are used for the secondary (booster) vaccines.
- Hitchner viruses cause asymptomatic infections. These viruses are described as lentogenic and are usually used to produce live vaccines.
Newcastle Disease can be controlled in several ways, including the use of inactivated vaccines.
Inactivated vaccines are usually produced using the virus-infected allantoic ﬂuid of embryonated chicken eggs. First, the virus is inactivated by using 0.1% Formalin. After confirmation of inactivation, the correct dilution is prepared, and then it is added to the oil adjuvant to make the emulsion. Furthermore, the best adjuvant type is an oil containing emulsiﬁers, and experiences have shown that inactivated vaccines with oil adjuvants are more effective in controlling Newcastle Disease.
Newpasol 101® Ingredients:
- The viral component of Newpasol 101®, Lentogenic Newcastle virus Strain V4, iscultured in embryonated SPF chicken eggs and subsequently isinactivated by using Formalin. By this method, the virus loses its infectivity but retains its immunity-inducing capabilities.
- Thiomersal, a commonly used preservative, is added to the antigen at 1:20000 ratios.
- Oil adjuvant is formulated and prepared at Pasouk’s knowledge-based company.
This vaccine is manufactured according to GMP guidelines.
The amount of virus needed to induce immunity at each dose depends on the 50 percent Egg Infective Dose (EID50) before virus inactivation. Therefore, the minimum EID50 required and present in each dose of Newpasol 101® is 108.5 EID50.
Newpasol 101® is used to vaccinate broilers, replacers, layers, and breeders to prevent Newcastle Disease. Day-old chickens may be vaccinated with this vaccine. However, for the best results in replacers, layers, and breeders, they are ﬁrst primed with live vaccines before vaccination with Newpasol 101®.
Dosage and Administration:
For one to sevenday-old chickens, 0.25 ml, and in chickens older than seven days, 0.3 ml should be injected. In one to sevenday-old chickens, the vaccine may only be administered subcutaneously in the neck, whereas, in older chickens, the product may be administered by either subcutaneous or intramuscular routes.
Keep the vaccine at ambient temperature for three to four hours before vaccination for better injectability. Shake the vaccine bottle well before use. Better results will be obtained if the container is shaken intermittently during vaccination. All instruments must be sterilized before injection.
Warnings and Precautions:
- The immune response will be improved if the chickens are healthy and not stressed.
- A small but transient complications may be observed at the site of inoculation.
- The chickens’ feed intake is not affected by this vaccine. Should there be a change in chickens’ feed intake, the causes must be identiﬁed.
Store at 2 to 8 ˚C and away from direct light. Avoid storage below 0 °C or in direct contact with ice. Keep the vaccine at ambient temperature three to four hours before vaccination. The content of each bottle should be used within 24 hours from the start of vaccination, and any remaining vaccine should be discarded as soon as possible.
Newpasol 101® is provided in 500 ml polypropylene bottles containing 2000 doses if 0.25 ml is injected.